Theme 1 (NAT) - American and National Identity | 2023 Apush Study Guide | quintuple (2023)

The only thing you need to know about this topic:

The development of national identity

America is a powerful nation (although, admittedly, its powers have been abused at times). We are one of the strongest military powers in the world and have an enormous reputation in the world. Many see the US as a beacon of hope, a home of opportunity, a great melting pot, and one of the most implacable defenders of our interests at home and abroad. But how did wecome here? How did America become "America"? What does it even mean to be an "American"? And how has this strong current of national identity shaped history and the present? That's what this topic is about.

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College board description 📘

This topic focuses on how and why definitions of American and national identity and values ​​have evolved among the diverse and changing populations of North America, as well as related issues such as citizenship, constitutionalism, foreign policy, assimilation, and American exceptionalism.

Organisationsfrage 🔎

How have American identity, exceptionality, and culture evolved throughout history?

Key vocabulary 📝

Bacon’s Rebellionmiddle passageMayflower compactAmerican state of emergencysalutary neglect
AnglicizationFirst great awakeningenlightenmentAlbany-Plan der UnionDeclaration of Independence
Inalienable Rightssocial contractpopular sovereigntyEgalitarianismRepublican Maternity
Articles of ConfederationBill of RightsRevolution of 1800manifest destinyera of good feelings
Monroe-Doctrinemarket revolutionSecond Great AwakeningDred Scott vs. SandfordGettysburg-Adresse
Transcontinental RailroadTurner-TheseDawes Multiplety ActEllis Islandurbanization
Let it beChauvinismusThe white man's burdenRoosevelt conclusionRobust individualism
welfare stateBaby-BoomSecond red frightMcCarthyismusxenophobia

Historical examples on this topic:

Period 1 (1491-1607)

The AP course description does not recognize American and National Identity (NAT) as a central theme in Period 1, which makes sense. For one thing, America wasn't really a nation and British colonization (out of which the nation would emerge) had not yet been cemented.

Still, there are a few things to mention.

The roots of colonization

For one thing, the seeds of colonialism were sown here. TheAge of Exploration ⚓🗺️ was motivated by the three G's: Gold, God, and Glory.

Before the Age of Exploration, the Crusades created tremendous demand for new trade routes, and the Renaissance ignited a desire for knowledge and growth. Europe moved further away from feudalism and towards capitalism as monarchs began to consolidate their wealth. 👑

This development has spurred competition between nations, and that is exactly the case herecolonization of Americastarted.

Even more, before the Europeans arrived, this nation was already claimed by indigenous peoples. Columbus did not "discover" anything technically. These tribes hadcomplex and diverse societieswho developed around their geography, albeit with very little cultural similarity between different tribes.

It is important to acknowledge this story when delving into this topic as it provokes discussion about itwho really owns America and what makes a person an American.

Period 2 (1607-1754)

Even before America was “America,” the foundation of our national identity was laid.

European nations colonized America for various reasons. The Spanish colonized with the aim of harvesting raw materials and spreading Christianity. They created thepackage systembased on the subjugation of the native people and developed a new caste system in their colonies. The French, on the other hand, were less interested in developing an empire and more interested in trading with natives. Thus they developed generally peaceful relations with the natives centered on trade. Britain settled along the east coast of North America and its colonies developed their ownregional identitiesbased on settlers, their motivation for settling, and geographic factors.

Chesapeake and Southern Colonies

England's first permanent colony, Jamestown, was settled in 1607. It was populated asAktiengesellschaft, meaning investors pooled their fortunes in hopes of making a profit. Its settlers were mostly young, single men who wanted to come in, make money, and get out. The times were in the beginning and during theHunger period of 1609, 80% of the settlers died ☠️.Plateeventually saved the region and it was here that the agricultural base of the area was laid.

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Since the south had a long growing season and fertile soil, agriculture was practicedcash crops 🌱became the main source of income. Tobacco remained the main crop in the Chesapeake region while rice, indigo, and cotton dominated other southern colonies. Large rivers in the south made port cities superfluous, ships could navigate up the riversThe plantationto collect exports.

The governmental systems in the Chesapeake area represented male landowning settlers. Most notable was VirginiasHouse of Citizens. This government was a legislative body designed to represent the settlers of Virginia.

The headright system encouraged settlement and allowed land for anyone who paid for their own passage. Workers who could not afford their own ticket could have one paid for and in return worked for several years to pay off their debt. These individuals became known ashired servants.

Bacon’s Rebellionin 1676 highlights the early conception of a right to revolt against an unjust government and also marks a major transition to slave labor in the Chesapeake and Southern Colonies.

Agricultural economies require a great deal of physical labor, and initially indentured labor was the preferred source of labor in the Chesapeake colonies. However, as the colonies became more prosperous, enslaved African people became the more common source of labor and human exploitationmiddle passagebecame the lucrative route through which thousands of slaves were stolen to America.

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Colonies of New England

The settlers of New England originally emigrated to the United StatesPlymouthSettlement and later to the Massachusetts Bay Colony to liberate himself from religious persecution. Even under British rule, the colonies were considered a land of freedom and opportunity.

The governments of these colonies, albeit reverentlyPuritans, established some serious principles in democracy. TheMayflower Compact von 1620illustrates the idea of ​​sacrificing personal gain for the common good. Thispilgrimrealizing they were far from home and doing something great, they laid out (in writing) the need for equal laws and a government that serves the governed.

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Another important document to outline the early ideasAmerican state of emergencyIsJohn WinthropsA model of Christian charity (You may know it as the “City on a Hill” sermon). John Winthrop illustrated the idea of ​​a city on a hill - a model society for everyone else. He declared that "in this work we shall be knit together as one" and suggested that as long as they kept God on their side, they were bound to greatness.

The economy of the New England societies was a mixed one, from which they benefitedtrade and shipbuilding. Cities began to develop as centers of commerce around ports. Agriculture was mainly limited toSelf-sufficiency farming 🐮🐷🐔and although there was slavery in the north, the demand for labor was much less.

Colonial cultural identity

Being so distant from Britain, the colonies began to develop their own identities. For most of this period Britain pursued a policy ofsalutary neglect, which allowed the colonies to operate fairly independently of their mother country. That erratically enforcednavigation lawsled to some early tensions between Britain and its colonies, but for the most part colonists identified themselves as British citizens.

The governments were unusually democratic for the time.meetings at City Hallin the New England colonies enabled the community to come together and legislate. Meanwhile the VirginiaHouse of Citizenswas (at least in theory) a representative legislature.

Nonetheless, the colonies also absorbed a fair chunk of English culture through a process known asAnglicization. Thanks to thetransatlantic pressure 🖨️AndProtestant evangelists, English ideas were brought to the colonies and, in turn, much of colonial society was modeled after English society. 🇬🇧

The first great awakening and enlightenment

Two of the most important factors in the development of national identity during this period were theFirst great awakeningand theenlightenment. Both movements started in England and migrated to the colonies; However, they affected the colonies in unique ways.

TheFirst great awakeningwas a revival ofProtestant evangelism ⛪. It was all very 'fire and brimstone' 🔥 but (in case you haven't noticed) American identity is steeped in this tradition. When we swear allegiance, we commit ourselves to “one nation under God.” Our patriotic songs include lyrics like "God pour out His mercy on you!". Even our currency bears the phrase "In God We Trust."

By thefirst great awakeningThe colonists also learned that they could resist the "old ways." Gone were the days of the divine rights of the king - people now sought a more personal relationship with God and an individual understanding of religion. A religious reformation may not seem particularly nationalistic, but it was crucial in developing a unique sense of autonomy.

That was just as importantEnlightenment 💡, which also reached America via thetransatlantic pressure.The ideas ofLocke, Rousseau and othersrevolutionized the way people thought about government and played a crucial role in the development of the nation.

Period 3 (1754-1800)

Period 3 is clearly extremely important for the issue of national identity - not only when the United States became an independent nation 🇺🇸 but also when it formed its own government through a series of experiments in democracy.

(Video) Developing an AMERICAN IDENTITY [APUSH Review Unit 3 Topic 11 (3.11)] Period 3: 1754-1800

The American Revolution

AfterFrench and Indian WarTensions between the colonists and Britain began to rise. The war spurred contempt on both sides. After the war, Britain felt that the colonies should pay for the massive debts incurred during the war.

This started aperiod of taxationand attempts at greater imperial control that spurred it onrevolutionary movement. Strengthened by the ideals ofEnlightenment,Colonists began to fight real and perceived restrictions on freedom with the rallying cry "No taxation without representation!" 🚫

In addition, the colonists felt harassed in other ways: they had to billeted soldiers, faced attempts by Britain to take up arms, and their attempts at petition were repeatedly halted. These issues were viewed as fundamental violations ofinalienable rightsand will be expressly protected by the in the futureBill of Rights. However, it is important to remember that most colonists during this period still considered themselves British citizens and identified more with the colony and region they came from. Years earlier they had turned down Ben Franklin'sAlbany-Plan der Union, which was the first colonial government. Also within thepatriotic movement, very few thinkers had come to accept the vision of America as a united front.

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enlightenmentthinkers 💭 likeThomas Paine(author ofCommon sense),Samuel Adams,AndBenjamin Franklinfanned the flames of rebellion, using Enlightenment ideals to fuel thempatriotic thing.

Ordinary people—the artisans, farmers, and society women—fueled the patriots' cause by helpingboycotted, creating revolutionary groups like theSons/Daughters of Liberty, and served in the Colonial Militia (originally known asMinutemen).

In 1776, at the beginning of the war, the colonies officially declared their independence from Great BritainDeclaration of Independence 📜. It is one of the most important documents in US history because it so clearly outlines what the United States stands for.

The ideas in this document were shaped byEnlightenment idealsand partly modeled from documents like thatEnglish Bill of Rightsand theMagna Carta.It was created based on four major themes of American identity:inalienable rights, the social contract, the right to revolt and popular sovereignty.

Inalienable Rights

Basic human rights that no government should take away—according to John Locke, these were our rights to “life, liberty, and property.” In the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson used the phrase "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."

social contract

The concept that governments derive their power from government approval. As citizens, we sacrifice some individual liberties to live under a government that protects our rights and protects us.

right to revolt

When a government has violated its part of the social contract (that is, when the government no longer serves its people), then the people can and should replace them.

popular sovereignty

The right of the people to choose their form of government.

Effects of the American Revolution

After the Revolutionary War, the United States of America became a sovereign nation with theTreaty of Paris (1783). The revolution fueled what arguably became one of the most central themes of the country's national identity: the idea ofEgalitarianism-- the belief that a person's success should be determined by what a person does, not by who they were born.

The idea ofEgalitarianismresounded in many groups. Abigail Adams urged her husband to 'remember the ladies' andRepublican Maternitywas born. Abolitionist movements formed and the northern states gradually began emancipating slaves. Inspired by the success of the American Revolution, revolutions also formed in France, Haiti and Latin America.

Experiments in Democracy

The first United States administration was ultimately unsuccessful. The makers ofArticles of ConfederationwarSoFearing centralized power, they created a federal government that was essentially paralyzed. 🔒

As noted, most colonists identified themselves as members of their colony, not as citizens of the United States. This meant that most representatives wanted to act on behalf of their colonies or regions, not the nation as a whole.

With the elaboration of theConstitution, the founders finally got it right. The spirit of compromise was present as different regions and interests compromised on what was best for the nation. The3/5 compromise, DieGreat compromise, and theElectoral College 🗳️all show this idea.

TheBill of Rightsguaranteed civil liberties for all citizens. The scars of British encroachments on colonial liberty can be seen directly in these ten amendments: right to bear arms, freedom of assembly, reserved powers of states and people, among others. 🗣️

The US Constitution is aliving document.It was formed in such a way that it could be modified and adjusted over time. It gives power to the federal government, but it also limits that power. It divides federal power intothree branches🏛️ and ensures that no industry becomes too powerful over a systemseparation of powers.

As the nation's first presidentGeorge Washingtonset many precedents that would further define national identity. In his cabinetpolitical partiesbegan to form. This separation betweenfederalistsAndDemocratic Republicansworried many (including Washington) but in hindsight set the tone for US policy.

The country also had to iron out remaining foreign policy problems. Despite being an independent nation on paper, several European powers (namely Britain and Spain) did not recognize Americasovereignty. Both nations remained on American territory, restricting our freedom of trade and our ability to negotiate with native tribes.

TheFrench Revolution 🇫🇷was another contentious issue the new nation faced. Despite opposing views on the matter, Washington decided to stay out of the dispute entirelyProclamation of Neutrality.

In hisfarewell speech, ✌️ Washington warned of political divisions and permanent foreign entanglements. The latter of these two warnings has been reiterated throughout American history.

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Period 4 (1800-1848)

While the AP course description does not identify American and National Identity (NAT) as a central theme for Period 4, there are many ways in which our national identity has evolved over this time frame.

The Revolution of 1800

Period 4 begins with theChoice of 1800. Democratic Republican candidate in this electionThomas Jeffersonwas elected after the Federalist's only termJohn Adams. It is sometimes called theRevolution of 1800because it was the first time that power changed hands between opposing political factions.

This often happens in modern America without a second thought. But at the time it was pretty revolutionary. Nobody really knew what would happen... Would the Federalists refuse to leave office? Would there be a military coup? Would we have a second revolution?

In reality,nothing has happened. One party left office while the next entered, and it all happened in a rather tame way. In retrospect, this is pretty central to our identity as a nation. 🤷🏻

The early republic

Jefferson would continue to set the toneAmerican state of emergency. In hisOpening speech, he described America as a God-blessed nation with fertile soil and room for many generations to come. He also famously quoted, "We're all Republicans, we're all Federalists." Yes, the nation had its internal strife, but at the end of the dayWe were Americans.

With that address, he placed our identity as Americans above political factions or personal differences. He also welcomed dissent, aptly stating that this is the beauty of our nation - it is a place where dissent could be voicedAndbe heard at no cost to the nation or its dissenters. He explained that this alone proves how strong our government would be.

His inaugural address also promoted the idea (originally persisted by Washington) that the President is not a sovereign leader but aadministrator of the people.He paid tribute to his advisors and apologized in advance for any mistakes.

His presidency itself further developed the young national identity. He struggled with theLouisiana Purchase,as president does not want to overstep his limits. Eventually he went through with it (obviously) because it helped us become greatAgrarian Empire 🌾he had dreamed of it.

Defense of American Sovereignty in the War of 1812

The nation tried again to prove its sovereignty when Britain and France violated our ability to trade freely. More so, Britain's nasty little habitimpressiveAmerican sailors (which meant catching them at sea and forcing them to serve in the Royal Navy) were getting pretty old. These trade problems and violations eventually forced the nation into theWar of 1812.

While the nation was divided over whether another war with Britain was in order, defending our sovereignty seemed quite important... once again.

This conflict is intertwined with another America in the World (WOR) APUSH topic, but, just to mention, the final oneWar of 1812was extremely important to our national identity. It is sometimes referred to as theSecond War of Independenceand after that, America would never have to fight for our independence and sovereignty again.

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The end ofWar of 1812led to a period of intense nationalism. With the decline of the Federalist Party after theHartford Convention, America was ushered into a super-patriotic period by just one political party:The era of good feelings.

The era of good feelings, the market revolution and national development

During this era of good feelings, the United States issued what is known asMonroe-Doctrine. Issued under the PresidentJames Monroe,The doctrine held that any further intervention in US policy or further attempts to colonize America by European powers would be viewed as an act of aggression.

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While this deals with the issues of politics (POL) and foreign policy (WOR), it was also a major power move for America. We established our supremacy not only over our own territory, but also over territories that we believed could become ours.

(Video) APUSH Unit 1 REVIEW (Period 1: 1491-1607)—Everything You NEED to Know

During this time themarket revolution⚙️ also defined America as a nation. Our economy changed from a traditional economy to a market economy andcapitalismbecame more of the status quo.

Regional differencesexacerbated with the market revolution as the North began to industrialize rapidly and the South became more entrenched in agriculture and dependent on slavery. Even asNationalism increased, and sectionalism also continueddriving north and south apart.

work and home becameseparate spheresand gender roles were further defined. The development ofRailways 🛤️ and canalsopened up the west and the manifest destiny became a pretty big deal.

Manifest Destiny and the Expansion of Democracy

In this sense,manifest destinyrefers to the increasingly popular belief of the time that America was destined by God to be a great nation, stretching from coast to coast. This idea was rooted in American exceptionalism and a belief in the superiority of American culture and civilization. It was the idea that America was destined to do great thingsWeilWe are a great nation, founded in liberty and with God on our side.

No work sums up the idea of ​​Manifest Destiny better thanJohn GastsAmerican progress.The play sums up everything on which American exceptionalism was built. The female character (named "Liberty") moves west. In her hand she carries a textbook (a symbol of education) and telegraph wires. With her follow light and symbols of technology, civilization and industry. 🌄

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IfAndreas Jacksonbecame president in 1828, democracy was greatly expanded for the common man. As the first„Selfmademan“To become president, Jackson believed that everyone should have the opportunity to participate in government.

While it can be debated how democratic Jackson's presidency really was, his presidency saw the elimination of ownership qualifications for voting and the introduction ofuniversal white male suffrage 🗳️. With that, democracy has definitely grown.

ButWHOis American andWasdoes the nation stand for? This expansion of the Empire was not without cost. TheIndian Removal Act von 1830forced Native Americans farther west from their homes, culminating in thetear trail,the forced relocation of 16,000 Cherokee Native Americans. A quarter of them died on the way.

Manifest Destiny also took us to theMexican-American Warfrom 1846 to 1848. UnderPresident James K. Polk(nicknamed the Manifest Destiny President), the US made its largest territorial gain since the Louisiana purchase. TheMexican assignmentofficially stretched our nation from coast to coast and consisted of what would later be ten states, including California.

Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

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Again, we must ask: at what cost? Mexico lost almost half of its territory with its defeat. Moreover, the status of thousands of Mexican settlers living in the area was now in question.

The second great awakening and the goodness of America

TheSecond Great Awakening⛪ revived the Protestant religion. Belief in human goodness and perfection led to a time ofAntebellum-Reformmovements. Most notable among these movements wereabolitionist reforms and women's suffrage movements.

In the 1830s, English ministers Andrew Reed and James Matheson quoted the now famous phrase: "America will be great when America is good." If not, their greatness will vanish like a morning cloud...” Ideas like these appeal once againAmerican state of emergencyand tries to explain what makes America a great nation.

Just to note that this quote is commonly misattributed to Alexis de Tocqueville and has been repeatedly (mostly mis)quoted by politicians. While the precise origins are elusive and the precise wording grows murky over time 🤨, the notion is still incredibly important: America is a special nation, founded in liberty and approved of by God.

Period 5 (1844-1877)

The nation splits

As land was increasingly added to the nation in the first half of the 19th century,section stressesfurther increased. As in the colonial days, Americans began to identify more with their respective regions than with their nation as a whole.

The question ofthe rights of statesand theissue of slaverybecame an increasingly moral and political issue. On the political front, the nation floundered with a series of failed legislative compromises. Viewing slavery as a moral issue (rather than a political one),abolitionistsfought to defend the rights of enslaved persons in this country.

The case ofDred Scott vs. Sandfordbrought the issue of African American citizenship and the constitutionality of slavery to the SCOTUS ⚖️. Dred Scott was a slave who had lived in free territory with his owner for several years. After the death of his owner, Scott petitioned the Supreme Court for his release.

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In the landmark judgment ofDred Scott vs. Sandford, the Supreme Court ruled that, as a black man, Scott was not a citizen of the United States and therefore legally disqualified. The case dealt a devastating blow to the issue of racial equality, and the federal government ruled that African Americanshad no legal rights that white people were obligated to uphold.

TheWahl 1860marked a crucial turning point in the history of American identity. The choice ofAbraham Lincolntriggered the secession of the southern states, which marked the beginning of thecivil war.

Like Jefferson, Jackson, and other presidents before him, Lincoln made no claim to his views on the country. For him, the unity and sanctity of America came first.preserve unionwas always Lincoln's goal before and during the Civil War.

As the Civil War raged on, America faced perhaps the greatest threat to our national identity to date. The country was divided at its seams and the citizens had gone from brothers to enemies.

1863, afterbattle of gettysburg,Lincoln delivered one of the most important and poignant speeches in American history. BeGettysburg-Adresse,lasting just under three minutes, it reminded listeners of everything the nation stood for.

The speech recalled the fundamentals of America and commemorated the signing of theDeclaration of Independence"four and seven years ago" (that's 1776 for those of you keeping track). He spoke only of the nation as a whole and made no mention of North, South, or any other existing division.

He honored veterans of the past, present and future who had died fighting for our nation's sanctity, and he assured that a country, whatever, will be made"by the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the face of the earth."👏

legacy of war

When the war ended withUnion victory, the nation merged back into one (admittedly, not that easy). While resentment still existed, from that point forward America would be a united front and citizens would largely consider themselves "Americans". The United States was, well, reunited.

The United States was redefined by the Civil War. The war eventually expanded the power of the federal government as wellconscription, the nation's firstincome tax, and the temporarysuspension of the arrest warrant.

Given the industrialization that had taken place in the preceding decades, the United States moved further away from Jefferson's vision of an agrarian society. The strong centralized government and the manufacturing societyAlexander Hamiltonhad imagined became more of a reality. The questions ofSecession and State Rightswere also officially ended.

The end of the Civil War also marked the end of slavery with the ratification of the13th amendment. Although some historians may argue that the Civil War was not necessarily fought because of slavery, there is no doubt that the scope of the war changed as it progressed.

America is trying to improve

Thedeclaration of emancipation,The Gettysburg Address and the tireless work of the abolitionists turned the war into a moral war and brought the issue of slavery to the fore. With the end of the war and the subsequent end of slavery, the issue becameWHOwas considered a resurrected American.

The period fromreconstructionfeatured debates on African American rights and citizenship. The14th and 15th amendments, along with the work ofOffice of the Freedmen, made great strides in securing equal rights for former enslaved persons.

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Unfortunately, there are legal loopholes to these changes caused by the violence inflictedKu Klux Klanin the South, and the Supreme Court's eventual curtailment of the 14th Amendment meant that much of that progress was quickly undone. These questions were only taken up again on this scale almost a hundred years later.

Period 6 (1865-1898)

The Golden Age was a time of great growth for America; However, it was also a period fraught with social problems and political corruption. The termGilded Agewas actually coined by the authorMark Twainfor this very reason. Like a gold plated object, the period looked shiny and new on the outside 💍 🏆 but was full of problems on the inside 🏚️ 🐀.

closure of the West

One important way in which national identity has grown has been through the settlement of the West. The federal government during this period actively encouraged settlement of the West through laws such as theHomestead Act, Pacific Railway Act und Morrill Land Grant Act.

As thousands of migrants headed west in search of opportunities 🌾🚜, the United States merged with the completion of theTranscontinental Railroad 🚂. By that time America had reached its true manifest destiny (in the sense that we had reached a territory stretching from sea to shining sea) and the West had become an important part of our national identity.

(Video) APUSH Themes

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1893,Frederick Jackson Turnerpresents this famous thesis entitledThe Importance of the Frontier in American HistoryIn theWorld's Fair Chicago 🎡. In this work, Turner claimed that the West is fundamental in shaping national identity.

He argued that all of the characteristics central to American identity (industry, individualism, materialism, ingenuity, and democracy) were developed across the American frontier. He supported this by developing the idea ofconsecutive borders-- the assertion that the frontier had repeatedly pushed the Americans back into a more primitive state throughout their settlement and finally cultivated a culture that was souniquely American.

Turner also saw the West as a breeding ground forprogressive reformsand assafety valve-- a place of endless possibilities and hope. With theclosing the border,Turner argued that America would soon pursue imperial goals in new frontiers beyond our own territory. Let's just say he wasn't entirely wrong about that.

Still,Who Owns the American Identity?The Native Americans of the Great Plains suffered great losses from this settlement. As the west became more settled during this period, the natives gradually lost more and more.

In 1887, thousands of acres of tribal land were broken up and redistributedDawes Multiplety Actand the 1890Battle of Wounded Kneeis widely regarded as the end of the Native American Resistance. Native Americans of the Great Plains region attended oneghost danceMovement in a last ditch effort to call on their ancestors to return to prosperity. The aftermath of these losses reverberates in Native American culture to this day.

The American melting pot

The idea of ​​American citizenship was also challenged by the huge influx of immigrants during this period. Millions of immigrants came over to the nationEllis Island 🚢in the late 1800s and early 1900s.

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This influx forced Americans to consider what it means to be a citizen of this country. Many Americans responded withNativistfeelings and calledImmigration Restrictions. Meanwhile, immigrants struggled to assimilate in this country while preserving their own cultural heritage.

Regarding the issue of national identity, this influx of immigrants can be seen as crucial to the idea of ​​the American melting pot. For immigrants coming from their home countries, the first look is at theStatue of Liberty 🗽arriving at Ellis Island meant something immeasurable: America was home to freedom, opportunity, and endless optimism.

Speaking of the Statue of Liberty, the statue was actually gifted to America by France during this period. The statue is meant to symbolize our camaraderie and bears the famous inscription:"Give me your weary, your poor, your huddled masses longing to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send me these homeless storm-torn ones, I raise my lamp by the golden door!”Now,that isNationality! 👌

urbanizationhappened quickly. The cities where many immigrants settled became centers of culture and trade. Many Americans would travel to cities to enjoy oneVarieté-Showor a new onedepartment store.Thanks to innovations in steel, electricity, and developments in urban planning, the American city looked as we know it today. 🏙️

The question of responsibility

America also rose to power during this period as one of the world's leading industrial powers. ALet it beEconomic approach andnew business tacticslet the industry 🏭 rise. This growth led to the prominence of a very wealthy upper class, led byIndustry captains(or as you might imagine,Raubritter). 💰💰💰

While men likeCarnegie and Rockefellerricher than ever, millions of workers and immigrants lived in abject poverty. living conditions in the cityapartment buildingswere often dirty, overcrowded and unsafe. Working conditions weren't much better. Many people saw this gap as an alarming sign of the times, and calls for reform began to grow.

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Amiddle classalso started to develop. For many Native Americans, living standards rose and consumption became the status quo. In this era, Americans began to enjoy department stores, spectator sports, and new sensational forms of journalism. 🗞️

This inequality and the social problems it creates have brought to light new debates about the responsibilities of the American government and its people.

Period 7 (1890-1945)

In Period 7 America continued its rise as one of the world's greatest powers. Foreign policy, World War I and World War II efforts, and continued industrialization played key roles in the nation's identity as America rose to power on the world stage. Domestically, ideas about American citizenship and what it means to be a citizen of this country were further developed as Issues of the Gilded Age sparked a series of progressive reforms.

Progressive Reform and American Citizenship

Thereform effortsInspired by the problems of the Golden Age, which typically began through individual and local efforts, they eventually made progress at the state and local levels as well.

While the rights of African Americans were still largely stifledJim Crow Süd, brilliant minds likeBooker T. Washington, W.E.B. DuBois und Ida B. Wellscontinued to fight for equality and debate the best means of achieving such equality.

The women's rights movements 👒 also made great strides thanks to organizations likeNAWSA and NWP. Finally the19th amendmentwas ratified in 1920 and secured women's suffrage. With opportunities to participate in government affairs and make their voices heard, women continued to work towards an equal place in American culture.

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Imperial efforts and American nationalism

In the last years of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, America's imperial efforts secured its role as policeman of democracy. Although theSpanish-American War1898 was short-livedTreaty of Parissigned America's victory, secured the territoriesPuerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines.

Further territorial acquisitions ofHawaii, Alaska and the Panama Canalfurther entrenched American empire. The result was a rising sentiment called extreme ethnocentric nationalismChauvinismus.

The philosophy of jingoism has its roots in the American state of emergency and the belief in the superiority of American culture and civilization. The same sentiments that inspired Manifest Destiny years ago fueled further Imperial efforts in this era. Just as Turner predicted, by closing our own borders, America wanted to extend its influence to new borders. 🌎

This idea was embodied in Rudyard Kipling's poemThe White Man's Burden.In this work, Kipling encourages America's imperial endeavors and their aftermathAnnexation of the Philippines.According to Kipling, it was the white manmorally obligatedTo promote progress in less "civilized" areas of the world.

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In 1904, President Theodore Roosevelt added theRoosevelt conclusionto the Monroe Doctrine. The amendment affirmed America's right to intervene in the affairs of smaller nations in Central America and the Caribbean. 🗺️

That kind of nationalism that was now both morally justifiedAndpolitically, the country also led to various diplomatic interventions. America played a key role in thisChina's Boxer Rebellion, the Russo-Japanese War and in the affairs of Cuba, Venezuela and Nicaragua.

America's Identity in World War I

Despite this apparent willingness to meddle in other nations' affairs, the country largely persistedIsolationistafter the outbreak of World War I in 1914. Paraphrasing Washington's farewell address,President Woodrow Wilsonthought it best to keep America out of the chaotic entanglements that were dragging a sizable portion of the world into a world war.

The United States managed to defend this neutrality until our own national security was threatened by itLusitania Incidentand theZimmermann telegram. In doing so, America asserted another very important component of our national identity: while the affairs of othersmay or may notinciting an insurgency to action, our own national security is seen as a top priority.

American troops did much to boost moraleallied troopsand victory came a year and a half later. America emerged from World War I as one of the strongest nations in the world, and we played a key role in the peace negotiations that followed.

The Roaring 20s and the Great Depression

TheRoar 20s💸 was a time of great optimism and prosperity for many Americans. It was also a time of great economic growth and a time of great social change. All of these factors helped foster America's self-image as a nation built on liberty, prosperity, and optimism.

The decade's prosperity created a sense ofrobust individualismamong Americans and their politicians. Characterized byPresident Herbert Hoover, the term posits the idea that Americans are (and should be) entirely self-made and independent, free from the need for any government assistance.

This “pull yourself up by the bootstraps” approach has been scrutinized with theStock market crash of 1929 and the Great Depression 📉that followed. Many Americans were being forced to reevaluate national ideals, and the government struggled to determine its place in helping its citizens.

Franklin Delano Rooseveltsnew businesschanged the relationship between government and business, and with it the relationship with the American careThe New Deal programs created a larger federal government designed to provide financial assistance and protection to its citizens.

Hard times usually tend to build character, and this era of history was no different. The boom of the 1920s and the crash of the 1930s shaped American identity in a unique way.

America in World War II

(Video) American Pageant Chapter 16 APUSH Review

The same national security concerns that got us into World War I eventually dragged the nation into World War II. When Japan bombed HawaiiPearl HarborNaval Base on December 7, 1941, America once again recognized the great need to defend its security and honor.

Theme 1 (NAT) - American and National Identity | 2023 Apush Study Guide | quintuple (17)

Hours after the attack, as millions of citizens watched in horror, President Roosevelt addressed Congress with his well-knownshame speech.The speech was officially a call for Congress to declare war, but more broadly it was a rallying cry for reassurance for the nation.

Like Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, Roosevelt's address to Congress carried far more significance than its immediate historical context implied. The speech exemplified the unwavering trust in the national government, the armed forces, and the will of the American public. It put America on the side of good and assured that all of God was on our side.

The United States emerged from World War II as the most powerful nation in the world. It was, and to this day is, the only nation to use nuclear war. America was no longer an isolationist nation, but oneglobal superpower. 🦅

The role of the American public in the war also served our optimism and growth during this time. The whole countrymobilizedand took part in the war: food wasrationed 🥫,war bondswere issued 💵,Victory gardens 🥕🥬were planted, andatFronts of society (including women, African Americans, and Native Americans) participated in the effort.

Period 8 (1945-1980)

Die 1950er

The 1950s played a major role in shaping the personal identity of American citizens. The nation's success in World War II and its rise to great power triggered an overwhelming optimism. Similar to the 1920s, Americans enjoyed an economic boom, a higher standard of living and a great spirit of optimism.

After the war, many Americans retreated to their homes to enjoy simple pleasures. WidespreadAutobesitz 🚗led to urban sprawl and rapid development of American housingsuburban🏡 and the lifestyle that came with it. The newfound security of the 1950s ushered in thatBaby boom 🍼, a time when birth rates were skyrocketing.

Mass-developed suburban homes (the first of which wasLevittown, New York) and the families living in it became the idyllic image of American success. They were safe, clean and healthy. They were also mostly Caucasian. The vision of the white picket fence, the manicured lawn, and the single car in the driveway became an American icon.

Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

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TheNuclear family(two parents and a couple of kids) became the hearthstone of the American dream. The Americans seemed to find great comfort in thistraditional gender roleswhich occupied men as providers 👔 💵 💼 and women as housewives 🧺 🧹 🍰.

Higher household incomeand more readily available technology allowed Americans to enjoy more everyday comforts.Cars, refrigerators, vacuum cleaners and other household itemswere easier to own than ever before.

One of the biggest innovations of that time was theTV 📺. Every evening, suburban families would gather in front of the TV to enjoy a good time. Television not only united families but also Americans as a whole by creating a unityPop Culture.

Defense of Democracy in the Cold War

With a new role on the world stage, America turned its attention to defeating a new enemy:communism. The days of neutrality and isolation were over and America saw the politics of thecontainmentas a moral obligation.

Communism was seen as the antithesis of everything that American identity stood for. America was a free world built on individual liberties, social mobility and capitalism. Communism was, well, none of that.

The United States experienced aSecond red frightAndSenator Joe McCarthyled a crusade against what he saw as communist infiltration.McCarthyismus,as it has been called, increased attention to immigration and American citizenship. Suddenly, immigrants were once again viewed as distinctly un-American. TheCold War eragreat promotedxenophobiaand many Americans viewed foreigners with suspicion.

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The Cold War lasted almost forty years and overshadowed several presidencies. While a detailed timeline would probably be better suited to other historical subjects, it is important to note the manner in which American national identity manifested itself during the war.

The politics ofcontainment(stopping the spread of communism) was the dominant theme for much of the Cold War. Ever since Roosevelt's Corollary, America had envisioned adefender of democracyand in that time we were one of the few nations powerful and prosperous enough to actually carry out that role.

TheTruman-Doctrine(1947) andMarshall Plan(1948) provided financial assistance to countries classified as vulnerable. It was believed that providing aid to these nations would help them resist the lure of Communism. Similarly, the United States provided physical aid to those under Communism's ruleBerlin Airlift. ✈️

This thing also drew America into two official wars: theKorean Warand theVietnam War.Many Americans protested against this involvement. They asked why we should risk our safety and the safety of our troops in a war we shouldn't be fighting.

Social Issues of the 1960s and 1970s

The civil rights issue was raised again as many Americans fought for equal rights for African Americans. activists such asMartin Luther King Jr. und Malcolm Xfought again for the rights of African Americans. ✊🏿

Since the BGH judgment ofPlessy v. FergusonIn 1896 the South had existed in one stateracial segregation. For the first time since reconstruction, the federal government actually heard this call. Great strides have been made through the Supreme CourtBrown v. Board of Education decision, DieCivil Rights Act 1964,and theVoting Rights Act 1965.

America's involvement in the Vietnam Wardistrust of the government, and a general backlash against the1950s Conformityled to a big onecountercultureMovement. American youth exercised their voice through protests, music, and in their chosen lifestyles. Colleges across America became scenes of protest and unrest.

Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

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This counterculture movement, seemingly against established national identity, was actually quite characteristic of exactly what America stands for. 🕊️✌️✊🏿

Period 9 (since 1980)

The globalization of America

In modern times, America has become part of a moreglobal identity. Technology has fundamentally changed the way we live, work, communicate and act. Thedigital age 📱 💻has not only impacted our lives as individuals, but has also impacted global economics and politics.

America is no longer a nation of lockdown and currently plays a big part in itworld affairs.The power we wield has continued to spark debates about whether or not intervention is always appropriate. Our nation's status as a great superpower has been both strengthened and challenged in modern times.

Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

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There is no doubt that America has a great deal of solidarity with itself. Given the terrorist attacks by11. September 2001,The country came together in a way rarely seen in our history. In the face of devastation and terror, America united and found great inner strength.

In other ways, division still exists. Americans continue to dispute what our national identity implies and what that identity means for us as citizens. With current events surrounding politics, gun control, religious extremism and civil rights, it sometimes seems that our nation is more partisan than ever. 🤔

Reflecting on American Identity ❔

To this day, America is one of the great powers of the world. Yet we wrestle with the questions that have been initiated and shaped throughout our history:

  • Is America really great and if not why?

  • What responsibility does America have to the world?

  • Who owns this nation and what does it mean to be an American?

As the nation continues to debate topical issues like gun control, immigration, and the ongoing division of modern politics, it's more important than ever to understand where we once came from.

(Video) The Natives and the English - Crash Course US History #3

These questions may never have definitive answers, but that's okay. Growth and progress lie in our ability to critically reflect on our history and grapple with the realities of our national identity. 🇬🇧


What is Theme 1 American and national identity? ›

This theme focuses on how and why definitions of American and national identity and values have developed among the diverse and changing population of North America as well as on related topics, such as citizenship, constitutionalism, foreign policy, assimilation, and American exceptionalism.

What are the 7 Apush themes? ›

The course also provides seven themes that students explore throughout the course in order to make connections among historical developments in different times and places: American and national identity; migration and settlement; politics and power; work, exchange, and technology; America in the world; geography and ...

What does national identity mean in Apush? ›

National identity. A sense of a nation as a cohesive whole represented by distinctive traditions, culture, and language.

How did the US develop a national identity between 1800 and 1855? ›

Between 1800 and 1855, Americans developed a national identity to a limited extent due to a widespread belief in rugged individualism and because of the unifying moment presented by the War o f 1812, but failed to include women and ethnic minorities in this national identity that catered largely to white men.

What is the main idea of national identity? ›

National identity is a person's identity or sense of belonging to one or more states or to one or more nations. It is the sense of "a nation as a cohesive whole, as represented by distinctive traditions, culture, and language".

What is the theme of identity in Apush? ›

This theme focuses on how and why definitions of American and national identity and values have developed, as well as related topics such as citizenship, constitutionalism, foreign policy, assimilation, and American exceptionalism.

How do I memorize content for Apush? ›

Use flashcards

A crucial step in acing the APUSH exam is to get a firm grasp on vocabulary, key terms, and phrases. Carve out at least 30 minutes per day Monday through Friday, going through the flashcards and memorizing their content. One tip: speak the word and the definition as you go through them.

How hard is AP US history? ›

AP US History (APUSH) is considered moderate difficulty, with class alumnae rating it 5.9/10 for overall difficulty (the 11th-most-difficult out of the 28 large AP classes surveyed). The pass rate is much lower than other AP classes, with 48% graduating with a 3 or higher.

Does AP US history count for college? ›

Many colleges require students to fulfill a history credit before they graduate. However, if you take the AP® U.S. History Exam and attain a certain score, you can qualify for credit toward that requirement.

What is national identity example? ›

Examples include Gender and Politics, or Race, Ethnicity and Politics, or Religion and Politics.

What are the five elements of national identity? ›

Returning to national identity, Smith names the fundamental elements of this concept as following: «a historic territory, or homeland; common myths and historical memories; a common, mass public culture; common legal rights and duties for all members; and a common economy with territorial mobility for members» (1991: ...

What is national identity quizlet? ›

national identity. an individual's identity/sense of belonging based on the country they live in, it is the sense of a nation as a whole as represented by distinctive traditions, culture, language and politics.

What caused the colonies to develop an identity as Americans? ›

Decades of domestic conflict and neglect by the British government forced the colonists to develop strategies for self government. The long distances and lack of communication between the colonies contributed to the development of separate identities.

Why did America's national identity change in the 1800s? ›

Political upheaval, economic transformation, technological advances and social and religious reform led to both desired and unexpected changes. There was no single unifying force that brought the nation together.

How did the American Revolution change American identity? ›

Fourth, the American Revolution committed the new nation to ideals of liberty, equality, natural and civil rights, and responsible citizenship and made them the basis of a new political order. None of these ideals was new or originated with Americans.

What are the 3 elements of national identity? ›

The elements of national identity are as follows: National anthem. Citizenship of a nation. Payment of taxes.

Why is national identity so important? ›

Having a clear national identity is important and unites all citizens into one in-group. A common identity defines citizens' membership in a country and places them in relation to other persons who are also citizens, or other persons from other countries.

Why do we need national identity? ›

One can see how important the NIN is to an individual: it is used for retrieving your captured information from the National Identity Database. your matching information associated with your NIN can be then used to verify that you are really who you say you are.

Why is identity An important theme? ›

Awareness of our identity is important because it helps us make our way through the world. Knowing who we are helps us know what we need to do, what is expected of us, and how others will react to us. It is intimately associated with our sense of well-being and self-respect.

What does the theme identity mean? ›

Identity can refer to an individual, a small group, or a social collective—and encompass issues such as race, ethnicity, class, gender, sexuality, religion, and the body. In the identities theme, you will explore where values, beliefs, and behaviors come from.

Is finding identity a theme? ›

The search for an ancestral past is a major literary theme and basic human need. One of the most pervasive themes in American literature is “the search for identity.” Our earliest authors celebrated literary characters who separated from family, ancestry, and the past to head west.

What percent is a 5 on APUSH exam? ›

How Is the AP US History Exam Scored?
Scaled ScoreAP Score% of Students Who Earned Score (2022)
1 more row
Nov 13, 2022

How hard is it to get a 5 on APUSH? ›

According to the College Board, the 5 rate in 2021 was just 10.1%. For context, only 9 other AP exams had lower 5 rates, while 28 had higher rates. Clearly, getting a 5 on APUSH takes a lot of work.

Can you cram APUSH? ›

We do not recommend cramming material into your brain in the weeks before the AP exam. Students who score well on the exam are students who have carefully studied U.S. history and have both a breadth and depth of understanding of the material and how to think historically.

What is the easiest AP class? ›

The Three Easiest AP Classes
  1. AP Psychology. With a reputation as one of the easiest AP classes, it comes as no surprise that AP Psychology is also one of the most popular—292,501 students took the exam in 2021. ...
  2. AP Comparative Government and Politics. ...
  3. AP Environmental Science.
Feb 9, 2023

What is the passing rate for APUSH? ›

Less than 60% of students pass the AP U.S. History exam with a score of 3 or higher. Compared to the average pass rate for all AP exams — about 71% — that's somewhat lower. Additionally, only 13% of AP U.S. History students pass the exam with a perfect score, compared to 20% of students on average across all AP exams.

What AP hardest? ›

AP Physics 1 is considered one of the hardest AP classes, covering topics like Newtonian mechanics and electrical charge and force. Students also spend about 25% of their class time performing college-level lab experiments and writing reports.

Does Harvard accept AP credit? ›

Credits are earned by scoring 5 on a minimum of four AP tests. Certain AP examinations test material covered in one semester only, and for each of these, Harvard confers only one half credit toward Advanced Standing. For more information, visit Harvard's website.

Do colleges accept a 3 for APUSH? ›

What score do you need for each AP Subject? Colleges are generally looking for a 4 (“well-qualified”) or 5 (“extremely qualified”) on the AP exam, but some may grant credit for a 3 (“qualified”). These scores mean you have proven yourself capable of doing the work in an introductory-level college course.

What is the hardest APUSH unit? ›

DBQ stands for Document Based Question and is arguably the most difficult component of the APUSH exam. The DBQ is in the essay-writing section of the exam, where students are expected to write a clear and concise essay that revolves around ten to twelve primary-source documents.

What are the four forms of national identity? ›

National Identity
  • Ideology.
  • Nationalism.
  • Citizenship.
  • Geography.
  • Cultural Identity.

What is an element of national identity? ›

Question 2: What are the 3 elements of national identity? Answer: The 3 essential elements are civic identity, cultural identity, and ethnicity.

How do you determine national identity? ›

National identity is different from both ethnicity and nationality and could be based on many things including, for example, culture, language or ancestry/family history. National identity reflects how an individual chooses to classify themself.

What are the six symbols that we show our national identity? ›

These are shown from national symbols such as flags, currency, history, language, culture and national colours. The complexities of political, social, cultural, economical and religion maybe experienced on a daily basis but a nation having its National identity is important for nation building.

What does American identity mean in US history? ›

It's a collection of ideals that include the rule of law, equality, freedom, hard work, and individualism. This remained the central idea that formed the American identity.

Is national identity a social identity? ›

It is socially constructed and affected by the process of current social structures. National identity is a part of social identity.

What is national identity formation? ›

The formation of national identity embodies a system that combines the positive stereotypes of one's own nation (patriotism) and negative stereotypes and attitudes toward the other nations (nationalism). There are two approaches to the study of differences between patriotism and nationalism in social psychology.

How did most American colonists identify themselves? ›

Throughout the seventeenth century, when the first permanent colonies were established in America, most settlers' identities remained stubbornly “English” rather than anything that could meaningfully be called “American.”

How did America develop a national identity after the war of 1812? ›

Symbols and stories from the War of 1812, including the story of the Star-Spangled Banner--the flag and the anthem--became part of American popular culture and helped forge a new sense of national identity.

Who advocated for a sense of American identity? ›

One of the most well-known scholars advocating a more exclusive definition of American identity is Samuel Huntington.

What were some of the key points that shaped America's early identity? ›

For Americans in the 19th century, politics and religion were the two primary factors in their personal identity. Political identity was often dictated first by where they lived; your allegiance was often first and foremost to your state, explaining some of the sectional issues that plagued early American history.

When did America develop a national identity? ›

The first Naturalization Act of 1790 passed by Congress and President George Washington defined American identity and citizenship on racial lines, declaring that only "free white men of good character" could become citizens, and denying citizenship to enslaved Black people and anyone of non-European stock; thus it was ...

What most influences the self identity of Americans? ›

While many factors make up human self-identity, most Americans agree the primary factor is family. Nearly two-thirds say their family makes up “a lot” of their personal identity (62%). In a recent study, Barna Group asked adults how much a variety of factors influences their personal identity.

What was the American identity during the American Revolution? ›

In the new United States, the Revolution largely reinforced a racial identity based on skin color. Whiteness, now a national identity, denoted freedom and stood as the key to power. Blackness, more than ever before, denoted servile status.

What were the 3 main causes of the American Revolution? ›

The Taxation Acts, the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, and the Intolerable Acts were the four main causes that lead to the American Revolution.

What is national identity? ›

National identity is different from both ethnicity and nationality and could be based on many things including, for example, culture, language or ancestry/family history. National identity reflects how an individual chooses to classify themself.

What is the theme of the American by Henry James? ›

The Role of Misperception in the Cultural Divide between Europe and America.

How is the American dream part of American identity? ›

For many people the American Dream defines the American identity. The American dream means individualism, gaining control of one's life, and the pursuit of happiness and upward mobility. However, the American Dream is not a universal concept that ensures success and equality.

What is an example of national identity? ›

Examples include Gender and Politics, or Race, Ethnicity and Politics, or Religion and Politics.

What is the short summary of the American? ›

The American is the story of a self-made American millionaire, Christopher Newman, whose guilelessness and forthrightness are set in contrast to the arrogance and cunning of a family of French aristocrats, the Bellegardes, whose daughter he unsuccessfully seeks to marry.

How is the idea of American Dream discuss as a central theme in all my sons? ›

The American Dream is the product of the West and the frontier experience, rather than the puritan tradition, because of its essential belief in the goodness of man and nature. The American Dream in Miller's All My Sons shows the father- son relationship and its deterioration in American family.

What does the author mean by the American National Expression Why? ›

By 'the American National Expression' the author means the evolvement of certain basic keywords which may be used anywhere, anyhow and these words have universal and multiple meanings.

What are 3 very common themes? ›

10 common themes in writing
  • 1 Beauty.
  • 2 Good vs. evil.
  • 3 Coming-of-age.
  • 4 Loyalty.
  • 5 Betrayal.
  • 6 Life and death.
  • 7 Justice.
  • 8 Family.
Jun 29, 2022

What are 5 themes examples? ›

Some common themes in literature are "love," "war," "revenge," "betrayal," "patriotism," "grace," "isolation," "motherhood," "forgiveness," "wartime loss," "treachery," "rich versus poor," "appearance versus reality," and "help from other-worldly powers."

What are the 5 major themes of American literature? ›

It may prove valuable to you by providing some ideas which you might wish to incorporate in any survey lecture which you give to your American literature class. Five major themes are discussed: (1) Innocence; (2) Violence; (3) The Frontier; (4) Absence of Happy Love or Fulfilling Marriage; and (5) Anti-machine.

What impact did the American Dream have on society? ›


The American Dream has been a long-time model of prosperity for both American's and people around the world. “The charm of anticipated success” has brought millions of immigrants to America, looking for equal opportunity and a better life.

What is the most important part of the American Dream? ›

A fundamental aspect of the American Dream has always been the expectation that the next generation should do better than the previous generation." "A lot of Americans think the U.S. has more social mobility than other western industrialized countries.

What does the theme American Dream mean? ›

The American dream is the belief that anyone, regardless of where they were born or what class they were born into, can attain their own version of success in a society in which upward mobility is possible for everyone.


1. APUSH DIG Exam Review: American Identity
(The APUSH Dig)
2. Westward Expansion: SOCIAL & CULTURAL Development [APUSH Review Unit 6 Topic 3] Period 6: 1865-1898
(Heimler's History)
3. The Development of AMERICAN Culture [APUSH Review Unit 4 Topic 9] Period 4: 1800-1848
(Heimler's History)
4. 2022 APUSH DBQ Analysis & Evidence
(APUSH Simplified)
5. How the US stole thousands of Native American children
6. American Pageant Chapter 28 APUSH Review (APUSH Period 7 Progressive Era)
(Jocz Productions)
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